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Three major leadership styles and ethical leadership

Introduction To many, leaders are not born, but made. It is increasingly accepted, however, that in order to be a good leader, one must have the experience, knowledge, commitment, patience, and most importantly the skill to negotiate and work with others to achieve goals. Good leaders are thus made, not born.

He stated that the basis of a good leadership is strong character and selfless devotion to an organization Jenkins, 2013. From the perspective of employees, leadership is comprised of everything a three major leadership styles and ethical leadership does that affects the achievement of objectives and the well-being of employees and the organization Abbasialiya, 2010. Leadership involves a type of responsibility aimed at achieving particular ends by applying the available resources human and material and ensuring a cohesive and coherent organization in the process Ololube, 2013.

Northouse 2007 and Rowe 2007 described leadership as a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to three major leadership styles and ethical leadership a common goal.

This article contends that effective leadership is crucial to the proper operation and very survival of a non-profit organization. Leadership is arguably one of the most observed, yet least understood phenomena on earth Burns, in Abbasialiya, 2010. Over time, researchers have proposed many different styles of leadership as there is no particular style of leadership that can be considered universal.

Despite the many diverse styles of leadership, a good or effective leader inspires, motivates, and directs activities to help achieve group or organizational goals.

Conversely, an ineffective leader does not contribute to organizational progress and can, in fact, detract from organizational goal accomplishment. According to Naylor 1999effective leadership is a product of the heart and an effective leader must be visionary, passionate, creative, flexible, inspiring, innovative, courageous, imaginative, experimental, and initiates change see figure 1. Qualities of the leader and the manager This study was enthused by the premise that no nation grows further than the quality of its educational leaders and or educational managers.

In this theoretical debate, the authors presented a moderately detail analysis of three major leadership styles and ethical leadership theoretical research conducted on the need for African countries especially Nigeria to reform.

This debate focus not simply on what educational leadership is, but the impact it has on school management, three major leadership styles and ethical leadership and students and the part it plays in meeting the challenges facing education institutions. The overall purpose of this theoretical debate is to examine the wider context in which leadership is made on effectiveness and improved school management. Theories three major leadership styles and ethical leadership Leadership There are as many different views of leadership as there are characteristic that distinguish leaders from non-leaders.

In the more dominant theories of leadership, there exists the notion that, at least to some degree, leadership is a process that involves influence with a group of people toward the realization of goals Wolinski, 2010. Charry 2012noting that scholarly interest in three major leadership styles and ethical leadership increased significantly during the early part of the twentieth century, identified eight major leadership theories.

While the earlier of these focused on the qualities that distinguish leaders from followers, later theories looked at other variables including situational factors and skill levels. These theories often portray leaders as heroic, mythic and destined to rise to leadership when needed.

The term great man was used because, at the time, leadership was thought of primarily as a male quality, especially three major leadership styles and ethical leadership leadership See also, Ololube, 2013. Trait Theory Similar in some ways to great man theories, the trait theory assumes that people inherit certain qualities or traits make them better suited to leadership. Trait theories often identify particular personality or behavioural characteristics that are shared by leaders. Many have begun to ask of this theory, however, if particular traits are key features of leaders and leadership, how do we explain people who possess those qualities but are not leaders?

Inconsistencies in the relationship between leadership traits and leadership effectiveness eventually led scholars to shift paradigms in search of new explanations for effective leadership. Contingency Theories Contingency theories of leadership focus on particular variables related to the environment that might determine which style of leadership is best suited for a particular work situation. According to this theory, no single leadership style is appropriate in all situations. Success depends upon a number of variables, including leadership style, qualities of followers and situational features Charry, 2012.

A contingency factor is thus any condition in any relevant environment to be considered when designing an organization or one of its elements Naylor, 1999. Situational Theory Situational theory proposes that leaders choose the best course of action based upon situational conditions or circumstances. Different styles of leadership may be more appropriate for different types of decision-making.

For example, in a situation where the leader is expected to be the most knowledgeable and experienced member of a group, an authoritarian style of leadership might be most appropriate. In other instances where group members are skilled experts and expect to be treated as such, a democratic style may be more effective.

Behavioural Theory Behavioural theories of leadership are based on the belief that great leaders are made, not born. This leadership theory focuses on the actions of three major leadership styles and ethical leadership not on intellectual qualities or internal states.

According to the behavioural theory, people can learn to become leaders through training and observation. Naylor 1999 notes that interest in the behaviour of leaders has been stimulated by a systematic comparison of autocratic and democratic leadership styles.

Leadership Styles

It has been observed that groups under these types of leadership perform differently: Group members, however, tend to be unhappy with the leadership style and express hostility. Group members have more positive feelings, however, and no hostility. Most importantly, the efforts of group members continue even when the leader is absent. Participative Theory Participative leadership theories suggest that the ideal leadership style is one that takes the input of others into account.

Participative leaders encourage participation and contributions from group members and help group members to feel relevant and committed to the decision-making process. A manager who uses participative leadership, rather than making all the decisions, seeks to involve other people, thus improving commitment and increasing collaboration, which leads to better quality decisions and a more successful business Lamb, 2013. Three major leadership styles and ethical leadership theories base leadership on a system of rewards and punishments Charry, 2012.

When employees are successful, they are rewarded and when they fail, they are reprimanded or punished Charry, 2012. Managerial or transactional theoryis often likened to the concept and practice of management and continues to three major leadership styles and ethical leadership an extremely common component of many leadership models and organizational structures Lamb, 2013. Relationship theories are often compared to charismatic leadership theories in which leaders with certain qualities, such as confidence, extroversion, and clearly stated values, are seen as best able to motivate followers Lamb, 2013.

Relationship or transformational leaders motivate and inspire people by helping group members see the importance and higher good of the task. These leaders are focused on the performance of group members, but also on each person to fulfilling his or her potential.

Leaders of this style often have high ethical and moral standards Charry, 2012.

Three major leadership styles and ethical leadership theory by no means refuses to acknowledge the connection between inherited traits and the capacity to lead effectively, but argues that learned skills, a developed style, and acquired knowledge, are the real keys to leadership performance. A strong belief in skills theory often demands that considerable effort and resources be devoted to leadership training and development Wolinski, 2010.

Principles of Leadership In addition to leadership theories, the principles of leadership are a commonly studied phenomenon. The United States Army 1983 has identified eleven basic principles of leadership and the means for implementing them: A leader must be able to communicate effectively.

Leaders should spend most of their day engaged in communication. Older studies, in fact, noted that organizational leaders managers spent 70 to 90 per cent of their time each day on communication and related activities Barrett, [n.

In order to know yourself, you have to understand what you are, what you know, and what you can do attributes. Seeking self-improvement means continually strengthening your attributes. Search for ways to guide your organization to new heights. When things go wrong, do not blame others.

Be a good role model for your employees. Employees must not only be told what is expected of them, but see leaders embodying organizational qualities and ethics. By developing a team spirit, you will be able to employ the abilities of your entire organization towards organizational goals. To sustain educational leadership, leaders must develop sustainability on how they approach, commit to and protect teaching and learning in schools; how they sustain themselves and followers around them to promote and support teaching and learning; how they are able and encouraged to sustain their vision and avoid burning out; and how they consider the impact of their leadership in school management.

To a large extent, it is not leaders who mismanage their schools; however, it is the systems in which they lead Mulford, 2003. Questionably, sustainable leadership certainly needs to become a commitment of all school three major leadership styles and ethical leadership. Leadership Styles Leadership styles are the approaches used to motivate followers.

Impact of Leadership Style on Organization Performance: A Critical Literature Review

Leadership styles should be selected and adapted to fit organizations, situations, groups, and individuals. It is thus useful to possess a thorough understanding of the different styles as such knowledge increases the tools available to lead effectively.

Below are a number of leadership styles articulated in the Toolkit n. Autocratic Leadership Style Autocratic leadership is an extreme form of transactional leadership, where leaders have complete power over staff. Staff and team members have three major leadership styles and ethical leadership opportunity to make suggestions, even if these are in the best interest of the team or organization. The benefit of autocratic leadership is that it is incredibly efficient.

Decisions are made quickly, and the work to implement those decisions can begin immediately. In terms of disadvantages, most staff resent being dealt with in this way. Autocratic leadership is three major leadership styles and ethical leadership best used in crises situation, when decisions must be made quickly and without dissent.

Bureaucratic Leadership Style Bureaucratic leaders follow rules rigorously, and ensure that their staff also follow procedures precisely. This is an appropriate leadership style for work involving serious safety risks such as working with machinery, with toxic substances, or at dangerous heights or where large sums of money are involved.

Bureaucratic leadership is also useful in organizations where employees do routine tasks Shaefer, 2005. The drawback of this type of leadership is that it is ineffective in three major leadership styles and ethical leadership and organizations that rely on flexibility, creativity, or innovation Santrock, 2007.

Charismatic Leadership Style Charismatic leadership theory describes what to expect from both leaders and followers. Charismatic leadership is a leadership style that is identifiable but may be perceived with less tangibility than other leadership styles Bell, 2013.

Often called a transformational leadership style, charismatic leaders inspire eagerness in their teams and are energetic in motivating employees to move forward.

The ensuing excitement and commitment from teams is an enormous asset to productivity and goal achievement. The negative side of charismatic leadership is the amount of confidence placed in the leader rather than in employees. This can create the risk of a project or even in an entire organization collapsing if the leader leaves. They encourage creativity, and team members are often highly engaged in projects and decisions.

There are many benefits of democratic leadership. Team members tend to have high job satisfaction and are productive because they are more involved. Team members feel a part of something larger and meaningful and so are motivated to by more than just a financial reward. The danger of democratic leadership is that it can falter in situations where speed or efficiency is essential.

During a crisis, for instance, a team can waste valuable time gathering input. Another potential danger is team members without the knowledge or expertise to provide high quality input. Laissez-Faire Three major leadership styles and ethical leadership Style Laissez-faire leadership may be the best or the worst of leadership styles Goodnight, 2011.

Laissez-faire leaders abdicate responsibilities and avoid making decisions, they may give teams complete freedom to do their work and set their own deadlines.