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Self concept attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and caring

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Participants were34 children, 17 with ADHD and 17in the control group, with a mean age of 9. For the evaluation, the following tests were used: The results indicated that children with ADHD showed worse out comes in attention and executive functions evaluations, in the belief of doing things the wrong way, in feelings of guilt and in low self-esteem, both in the general result as well as in self-perception. The manifestation of ADHD inattention component may be perceived as daydreaming, distractibility or focus difficulty on just one activity for a long period of time, lethargic behavior, lack of motivation, greater impairment in working memory, low performance in reading and understanding, internalizing symptoms such as depression and anxiety self concept attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and caring, learning difficulties, perceptual-motor tasks, difficulties in focusing attention and cognitive disorder.

ADHD is a common condition, multifactorial and complex etiology, with high prevalence rates when compared to other childhood disorders. It is a topic much studied in the literature regarding academic problems, behavioral, substance abuse and excessive absences at school Barkley, 2008 ; Biederman, 2005 ; Biederman et al.

Regarding the models of which brain areas are involved in the disorder, first it was credited to the prefrontal-striatal areas as altered self concept attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and caring ADHD subjects. Subsequently, it was discovered involvement of cerebellar areas.

The network known as the executive control circuit, or fronto-parietal circuits, includes the lateral frontal lobe, the anterior cingulate cortex, dorsolateral and anterior prefrontal cortex, lateral cerebellum, anterior insula gyrus, caudate nucleus and inferior parietal lobe regions.

The correct diagnosis of this disorder is crucial, since impairments may occur in quality of life of children and adolescents. Therefore, it should be done by an interdisciplinary team, which will evaluate all aspects related to the individual: However, this takes time and is expensive Ciasca et al.

Thus, the concept is just a value judgment expressed by the attitudes that the individual cultivates for him self concept attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and caring herself. The self-concept begins in childhood, is developed throughout life and is directly related to the impact of other's opinion.

There are few data in the literature on self-esteem in children with ADHD, especially when considering the importance of this aspect in neuropsychological interventions. Studies on the functioning of the skills related to emotional competence in children with ADHD are scarce Albert et al.

Gobitta and Guzzo 2002 claim that there are at least five reasons for the need to develop research focusing on self-esteem: However, research on the relationship of ADHD and the development of self-esteem are inconclusive, as some studies indicate that these individuals often have self concept attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and caring self-esteem, and others report that children and adolescents with ADHD often overestimate their abilities, perceptions of self and self-concepts.

Thus, as a protection mechanism, they enhance the appreciation of happiness that they feel with their lives Self concept attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and caring et al.

Sisto and Martinelli 2004 describe that experience failure in performance on academic tasks can generate feelings of insecurity and lack of confidence in children, as studies are the main activity during childhood and adolescence. As it is characteristic of most children and adolescents with ADHD have an impact on school performance, it is likely to impact on the formation of school self-concept, which is related to the representations of one's accomplishments school abilities and assessments that the person does about them.

Children and adolescents with ADHD may have problems in skills that relate to emotional competence, such as recognition of facial expressions, emotional and affective prosody, regulation and expression of emotions. Studies show that these difficulties are related to the combined and hyperactive-impulsive subtypes, but there are no data regarding the inattentive subtype Albert et al. These conditions lead to the importance of making a survey of self-esteem self concept attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and caring self-concept of children with ADHD, related to possible changes in brain areas involved in attention and executive functions, influencing their social and educational development.

Method Participants This study enrolled 34 public school children, aged 8-13 years-old, mean age: Participants were divided into two groups: Initially, the children underwent diagnostic evaluation performed by an interdisciplinary team child neurology, psychiatry, psychologist, speech therapist and pedagogueaccording to the DSM-IV at time of evaluation, and were included in the study after confirming the diagnosis.

The criteria for inclusion in these groups were as follows: Initially, during the period of the study, 57 children with attention difficulties complaints were evaluated, and 40 were excluded for not confirming the diagnosis of ADHD or lack of continuity of the evaluation process or because the parents did not sign the consent form.

Thus, the total study sample consisted of 17 children with interdisciplinary diagnostic of ADHD. Children were selected accordingly, matched for age and sex with other groups and assessed in the school context. The self concept attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and caring for inclusion in the group were as follows: A performance test that requires continuous rapid visual selectivity and repetitive motor response and aims to assess sustained visual-spatial attention.

It was used two versions: For both versions, there was no set time limit to perform the tasks. Part A of TMT assesses visual sustained attention and is composed of a sheet with circles numbered 1 to 25, and the child was randomly assigned to draw a line connecting the sequence of numbers as fast as he could. Part B assesses mental flexibility and is composed of circles with numbers and letters.

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The child should draw a line alternately connecting the circles with numbers and letters, for example: Before collecting the data, it was verified whether the children properly recognized numbers and letters randomly and sequentially.

This test evaluates the ability of inhibitory control and selective visual attention. We used the four-color version red, yellow, blue and green and 24 stimuli in each of three parts: Scores were obtained for time and errors for each of the cards, and additional scores were calculated: The score is obtained by subtracting time facilitation-time and error facilitate-errors scores: The score is obtained by subtracting time interference-time and error interference-errors scores: Tower of London ToL; Lima et al.

The goal is to rearrange the position of the circles from a fixed initial order to get different orders defined by the evaluator. Ten items showed increasing degree of difficulty depending on the number of moves needed to reach the final position.

For each item, the examiner placed the circles in early position and then in final position; the child had to play using the fewest possible moves.

The scores for each item could range self concept attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and caring 1-3 points. The final score was expressed as the sum of scores for each item. Adapted for the Brazilian population, this inventory is widely used in epidemiological and clinical studies in Brazil and internationally. It is a self-assessment scale consisted of 20 items designed to identify depressive symptoms affective, cognitive and behavioral in children and adolescents of 7-17 years of age, using a cutoff of 17 for identifying significant symptoms.

The subject must indicate one of three possible responses for each item, so that the score ranges from 0 no symptoms to 2 severe symptoms. Self-Esteem and Self-Concept Evaluation. Translated from the instrument originally developed by Stanley Coopersmith in 1967 and 1989, this is a self-assessment inventory with 56 questions designed to identify the concept of self concept attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and caring of children and adolescents aged 7-18 years.

The individual must indicate for each question one of five alternatives, ranging from 0 to 5 points. The total maximum score for the overall scale is 280 points and the minimum of 56. The answers are divide into five dimensions, namely: Dimension 1 - Social acceptance, composed of 15 items that express judgments about characteristics of one's self on social relationships, such as social acceptance, socialization, social skills, extroversion, ability to influence the other, expression of own opinions, feelings expression, affections and moods, and others.

Dimension 2 - Self Perception, with 15 items that express negative judgments about self's aspects, such as physical personal and social characteristics; Dimension 3 - Family, with 11 items that express judgments about characteristics of the relationships within the family, such as the acceptance or not, by parents, of his feelings and thoughts, and attention, care and affection perceived; Self concept attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and caring 4 - Performance, with 10 items that express judgments about the perceived characteristics of the personal performance, effectiveness and involvement in demands and expectations of the relational group, especially in the family and the school context; Dimension 5 - Self Acceptance, with 5 items that express judgments about self's characteristics, such as physical appearance and life satisfaction.

This is a 20 questions self-assessment scale divided into 4 categories, which were personal self-concept, with 5 questions, social self-concept, with 5 questions, school self-concept, with 4 questions, family self-concept, with 6 questions.

All questions must be answered with just one answer among three alternatives: The children were assessed individually by a single examiner in the rooms of the Outpatient Clinic of Neuro-Learning Difficulties or school, according to the group, and after parents signing the consent form. The tests were applied in the following sequence: After the evaluations, the data were tabulated and went through descriptive measures of central tendency and dispersion and inferential statistics non parametric Mann Whitney Testusing SPSS Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 20.

In Cancellation Test, the SG showed more difficulties in visual sustained attention, with more omission errors at Geometric Figures and at Letters in Row i.