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Gender differences in emotional responses to clothing

Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine

The general objective of this paper is to evaluate the determinant attributes of the perception of clothing quality by the users of a social network and to verify if there are any differences of evaluation of these determinants between genders. To achieve the objective, a survey was conducted with a sample of consumers. All participants, regardless of gender, were asked to access the SurveyMonkey site link and to answer the questions regarding the quality of clothing for both men and women.

The main results show that: The consumers of garments regard as highly gender differences in emotional responses to clothing to take into consideration quality attributes when deciding to buy clothes, especially for women in relation to menswear; 2.

This gender differences in emotional responses to clothing filled in some theoretical and methodological gaps with regard to giving emphasis to gender differences in clothing quality assessment.

Therefore, generalizations beyond the product or the consumers examined are of dubious validity. This is essentially because consumers change their buying behaviors depending on their perception of the overall quality of a garment.

The evaluation of the quality of the product is not only limited to the functional aspects, but also includes the aesthetics. Aesthetics can be defined as the study of human reaction to gender differences in emotional responses to clothing non-instrumental qualities of an object.

Clothing products not only stimulate sensory reactions from consumers but also arouse emotional and cognitive reactions, which, according to Fiore and Kimleusually result from the formal qualities such as color, texture, lines and trim that make up clothing. Rahman attests that intrinsic factors play a more significant role than extrinsic factors as he observed in the case of denim products.

These formal qualities are inherent, especially in the style and materials that make up the garment. However, consumers Men and Women differ in their buying behaviors when assessing the overall quality of a garment, sometimes having limited information about the intrinsic and extrinsic components of a garment.

Men and Women, in many buying experiences, are not fully aware of how to evaluate the items that make up the garments.

However, Dickerson argues that the apparel industry faces difficulties in satisfying the consumer, because consumer priorities changed significantly in the previous decade the s. During the s and into the s, consumers tended to buy fashionable clothing without much consideration of the price of a particular brand.

However, consumers today are generally more value-oriented, that is, they demand more than they can afford. At the same time, Rabolt and Solomon corroborate the fact that the demands of clothing consumers have increased since the s, and they find themselves less satisfied with what has been offered, since clothing is important in their lives.

It would be a mistake to underestimate the importance of fashion in society. Clothing and accessories are expressions of the way people see themselves, and how they want to be treated by others. In this context, the general objective of this article is to evaluate the determinant attributes of the perception of the quality of clothing by consumers users of social networksand to verify if there are differences of evaluation of these determinants between genders.

This objective is relevant because, according to De Klerk and Lubbethere is a shortage of research addressing how consumers evaluate the quality of clothing products during the purchase decision making process. In addition, the application of our research model, based on the Swinker and Hines model, has original aspects such as the fact that: Hence, this research filled in some theoretical gender differences in emotional responses to clothing methodological gaps with regard to giving emphasis to gender differences in clothing quality assessment.

Besides this introduction, this article presents four parts. The first refers to the review of the theoretical and empirical literature on the evaluation of clothing quality by consumers, concluding with the conceptual model of the study. The second presents the methodology, highlighting the population and sample of the research, the data collection and the analytical techniques employed. Following that, the analysis and discussion of the results are presented.

Finally, the fourth part presents the conclusions of the study, including its limitations. There is, therefore, a long tradition of studies gender differences in emotional responses to clothing the concrete attributes that determine the perception of the quality of the garments and in the end the buying-decision, as exemplified by the works of Dodds, Monroe and GrewalOlson and JacobyRichardson, Dick and Jainamongst many others.

Olson and Jacobyfor example, found that intrinsic attributes were generally perceived as the most accurate indicators of quality. Intrinsic attributes are those which are inherent in the product and cannot be modified without altering the product, such as sewing or fabric techniques. The research on this topic has evolved a lot, while maintaining the emphasis on the role of these intrinsic and extrinsic specific attributes. This is exemplified by Bezuidenhout and Sonnenberg who investigated the relative importance of these attributes to female consumers of the apparel retail sector, and by Coelho who investigated the expectations of older female consumers regarding clothing attributes construction, price, clothing care, fit, fabric, sizing, style and color.

Bezuidenhout and Sonnenberg found that some attributes were evaluated as prominent whilst others were not. In turn, Coelho found that the women considered all attributes as being important or very important, in contrast to the performance rating of gender differences in emotional responses to clothing, which was low. In this line, Gitimu et al. In this area, many studies have shown differences in quality assessment depending on the context and the sector.

In fact, Swinker and Hines point out that consumer perceptions of garment quality is a multidimensional concept and should be evaluated at various levels, since some studies have reported an effect of concrete attributes on consumer perceptions of clothing quality and others have not. For example, in the studies of Dickerson and Wall and Heslopa strong relationship was reported between the country of origin and the perceived quality of clothing.

Zeithamlusing means-end chain theory, also suggests that quality is a multidimensional concept, based on both the intrinsic and extrinsic attributes of goods. However, Sternquist and Davis found no evidence of the later relationship.

Dickerson, and others have not e. The differences in gender differences in emotional responses to clothing are probably due to methodological aspects. Workman and Cho claim that preferences are gender differences in emotional responses to clothing by the culture in which an individual grows up as well as by individual differences between consumers such as differences gender differences in emotional responses to clothing gender, fashion leadership and need to touch.

They are also due to differences in context. Swinker and Hinesalso based on the literature, showed that in some studies e. Fitness for use focuses on how well the product performs its intended function or use. Value for price paid is a definition of quality that is price sensitive, that is, the goods or services of quality are worth the price paid.

Support services means that the quality of a product is judged also based on the efficiency and accuracy of the service at and post sales. Psychological criteria focus on the judgmental evaluation of what constitutes product or service quality, based on factors such as the atmosphere of the environment or the perceived prestige of the product Syduzzaman et al.

Fowler and Clodfelter argue that the quality level of an item of clothing is a difficult factor to isolate and to define when gender differences in emotional responses to clothing item of clothing has to be evaluated.

However, quality is still considered to be one of the main reasons for consumer dissatisfaction with clothing products. Considering the fashion-marketing perspective, Sieben and Yoon and Kijewski point out that the quality of clothing products is associated with the extent to which it meets the consumer needs.

Brown and Rice add that the quality of clothing products has two dimensions: As physical characteristics can influence behavioral characteristics, consumers should select apparel products taking into account the physical characteristics they believe will cause a specific behavior.

Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine

Physical characteristics include the intrinsic factors of the product, such as design, textiles, gender differences in emotional responses to clothing and finishing, which cannot be changed without changing the item itself. Brown and RiceGersak and Sieben gender differences in emotional responses to clothing that the behavioral characteristics of clothing products can be divided into functional as well as aesthetic behavioral characteristics.

Functional behavioral characteristics refer to properties such as the durability and comfort of the item. According to Abraham-Murali and LittellBrown and Rice and Zeithamlconsumers can evaluate a product when purchasing or when using it. It is, however, important that the quality is assessed during the buying decision-making process. However, clothing consumers in many cases do not intentionally evaluate the quality of the item before, during or after the purchase. In many cases, quality is evaluated from specific extrinsic indicators, such as the brand name or the store where it is purchased.

Clothing consumers have specific expectations about the product because of previous experiences with a similar product or available information regarding its quality. Therefore, it is important that they evaluate the quality of any new items at the point of sale. The ultimate objective of gender differences in emotional responses to clothing the quality of clothing products is that the consumer is satisfied to the point of making new purchases.

It should be noted, however, that although the initial selection of the interviewees followed a probabilistic process, the final sample could not be considered a probabilistic sample Malhotra, Actually, it is a sample by convenience. In this case, the potential respondents were asked to access the SurveyMonkey site link to participate in the survey that addressed factors related to the quality of the male and female garments independently of the gender.

The sample comprised respondents, stratified by sex, age, schooling and income. In this study, there was a slight predominance of female respondents or A high majority or Questions were gender differences in emotional responses to clothing based on the work of Swinker and Hines The data were collected through a questionnaire with 44 questions about the quality assessment of garments, deposited in the SurveyMonkey tool.

The evaluation performed by the respondents is presented in Table 1by means of the answers to the 44 questions. The highest mean 4. In the second place, the average of 4. The third highest average, 4. Quality assessment of clothing What is your gender?