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Four frameworks for leadership the bolman deal model

Here are descriptions of and differences between the Four Frames: Structural This Frame focuses on the obvious 'how' of change. It's mainly a task-orientated Frame. It concentrates on strategy; setting measurable goals; clarifying tasks, responsibilities and reporting lines; agreeing metrics and deadlines; and creating systems and procedures. It chiefly focuses on giving employees the power and opportunity to perform their jobs well, while at the same time, addressing their needs for human contact, personal growth, and job satisfaction.

Political The Political Frame addresses the problem of individuals and interest groups having sometimes conflicting often hidden agendas, especially at times when budgets are limited and the organization has to make difficult choices.

In this Frame you will see coalition-building, conflict resolution work, and power-base building to support the leader's initiatives. Symbolic The Symbolic Frame addresses people's needs for a sense of purpose and meaning in their work. It focuses on inspiring people by making the organization's direction feel significant and distinctive. It includes creating a four frameworks for leadership the bolman deal model vision, and recognising superb performance through company celebrations.

Bolman and Deal proposed that a leader should see the organization's challenges through these four Four frameworks for leadership the bolman deal model or 'lenses', to gain an overall view, and to decide which Frame or Frames to use. The leader may use one Frame implying a behavioural approach for a time, and then switch to another. Or instead the leader might combine and use a number of Frames, or all four, at the same time.

A crucial aspect of Bolman and Deal's model seeks to avoid the temptation for leaders to becoming stuck, viewing and acting on conditions through one lens or Frame alone. Bolman and Deal assert that because no Frame works well in every four frameworks for leadership the bolman deal model, then a leader who sticks with one Frame is bound eventually to act inappropriately and ineffectively.

Instead, it is the leader's responsibility to use the appropriate Frame of reference, and thereby behaviour, for each challenge. Central to this methodology is asking the right questions and diagnosing the vital issues.

Bolman and Deal's Four-Frame Model

Essentially, the leader should adopt a multi-Frame perspective before choosing how to act. Organizations tend naturally to use the Structural Frame but pay less attention to the other three Frames.

According to Four-Frame theory, this is due either to: