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An introduction to the comparison of civilizations of england and china

Education in the earliest civilizations The Old World civilizations of Egypt, Mesopotamia, and North China The history of civilization started in the Middle East about 3000 bce, whereas the North China civilization began about a millennium and a half later. The Mesopotamian and Egyptian civilizations flourished almost simultaneously during the first civilizational phase 3000—1500 bce.

Although these civilizations differed, they shared monumental literary achievements. The need for the perpetuation of these highly developed civilizations made writing and formal education indispensable. Egypt Egyptian culture and education were preserved and controlled chiefly by the priestsa powerful intellectual elite in the An introduction to the comparison of civilizations of england and china theocracy who also served as the political bulwarks by preventing cultural diversity.

The humanities as well as such practical subjects as sciencemedicinemathematicsand geometry were in the hands of the priests, who taught in formal schools. Vocational skills relating to such fields as architectureengineeringand sculpture were generally transmitted outside the context of formal schooling. Egyptians developed two types of formal schools for privileged youth under the supervision of governmental officials and priests: At the age of 13 or 14 the schoolboys were also given practical training in offices for which they were being prepared.

It is not clear whether or not the practical sciences constituted a part of the systematically organized curriculum of the temple an introduction to the comparison of civilizations of england and china.

Rigid method and severe discipline were applied to achieve uniformity in cultural transmission, since deviation from the traditional pattern of thought was strictly prohibited.

Marco Polo – the man who brought China to Europe

Drill and memorization were the typical methods employed. But, as noted, Egyptians also used a work-study method in the final phase of the training for scribes. Mesopotamia As a civilization contemporary with Egyptian civilization, Mesopotamia developed education quite similar to that of its counterpart with respect to its purpose and training. Formal education was practical and aimed to train scribes and priests.

It was extended from an introduction to the comparison of civilizations of england and china reading, writing, and religion to higher learning in lawmedicine, and astrology. Generally, youth of the upper classes were prepared to become scribes, who ranged from copyists to librarians and teachers. The schools for priests were said to be as numerous as temples. This indicates not only the thoroughness but also the supremacy of priestly education. Very little is known about higher educationbut the advancement of the priestly work sheds light upon the extensive nature of intellectual pursuit.

As in the case of Egypt, the priests in Mesopotamia dominated the intellectual and educational domain as well as the applied. The centre of intellectual activity and training was the librarywhich was usually housed in a temple under the supervision of influential priests.

How ancient China and Egypt developed similar structures

Methods of teaching and learning were memorization, oral repetition, copying models, and individual instruction. It is believed that the exact copying of scripts was the hardest and most strenuous and served as the test of excellence in learning.

The period of education was long and rigorous, and discipline was harsh. North China In North China, the civilization of which began with the emergence of the Shang era, complex educational practices were in effect at a very early date.

In fact, every important foundation of the formation of modern Chinese character was already established, to a great extent, more than 3,000 years ago. Chinese ancient formal education was distinguished by its markedly secular and moral character.

Its paramount purpose was to develop a sense of moral sensitivity and duty toward people and the state. An introduction to the comparison of civilizations of england and china in the early civilizational stage, harmonious human relations, rituals, and music formed the curriculum. Formal colleges and schools probably antedate the Zhou dynasty of the 1st millennium bce, at least in the imperial capitals. Local states probably had less-organized institutions, such as halls of study, village schools, and district schools.

With regard to actual methods of education, ancient Chinese learned from bamboo books and obtained moral training and practice in rituals by word of mouth and example.

Rigid rote learning, which typified later Chinese education, seems to have been rather condemned. Education was regarded as the process of individual development from within. The New World civilizations of the Maya, Aztecs, and Incas The outstanding cultural achievements of the pre-Columbian civilizations are often compared with those of Old World an introduction to the comparison of civilizations of england and china. It is unfortunate that archaeological findings and written documents hardly shed sufficient light upon education among the Maya, Aztecs, and Incas.

But from available documents it is evident that these pre-Columbian civilizations developed formal education for training the nobility and priests.

Overview of Chinese mathematics

The major purposes of education were cultural conservation, vocational training, moral and character training, and control of cultural deviation. The Maya Being a highly religious culture, the Maya regarded the priesthood as one of the most influential factors in the development of their society. The priest enjoyed high prestige by virtue of his extensive knowledge, literate skills, and religious and moral leadership, and high priests served as major advisers of the rulers and the nobility.

To obtain a priesthood, which was usually inherited from his father or another close relative, the trainee had to receive rigorous education in the school where priests taught history, writing, methods of divining, medicine, and the calendar system.

Character training was one of the salient features of Mayan education. The inculcation of self-restraint, cooperative work, and moderation an introduction to the comparison of civilizations of england and china highly emphasized in various stages of socialization as well as on various occasions of religious festivals. In order to develop self-discipline, the future priest endured a long period of continence and abstinence and, to an introduction to the comparison of civilizations of england and china a sense of loyalty to communityhe engaged in group labour.

The Aztecs Among the Aztecscultural preservation relied heavily upon oral transmission and rote memorization of important events, calendrical information, and religious knowledge. Priests and noble elders, who were called conservators, were in charge of education. Since one of the important responsibilities of the conservator was to censor new poems and songs, he took the greatest care in teaching poetry, particularly divine songs.

At the calmecacthe school for native learning where apprenticeship started at the age of 10, the history of Mexico and the content of the historical codices were systematically taught. The calmecac played the most vital role in ensuring oral transmission of history through oratorypoetry, and music, which were employed to make accurate memorization of events easier and to galvanize remembrance. Visual aids, such as simple graphic representations, were used to guide recitation phases, to sustain interest, and to increase comprehension of facts and dates.

The Incas The Incas did not possess a written or recorded language as far as is known. Like the Aztecs, they also depended largely on oral transmission as a means of maintaining the preservation of their culture. Inca education was an introduction to the comparison of civilizations of england and china into two distinct categories: As the Inca empire was a theocratic, imperial government based upon agrarian collectivism, the rulers were concerned about the vocational training of men and women in collective agriculture.

Personal freedom, life, and work were subservient to the community. Education for the nobility consisted of a four-year program that was clearly defined in terms of the curricula and rituals. In the first year the pupils learned Quechuathe language of the nobility. The second year was devoted to the study of religion and the third year to learning about the quipu khipua complex system of knotted coloured strings or cords used largely for accounting purposes.

In the fourth year major attention was given to the study of history, with additional instruction in sciences, geometry, geographyand astronomy.

The instructors were highly respected encyclopaedic scholars known as amautas. After the completion of this education, the pupils were required to pass a series of rigorous examinations in order to attain full status in the life of the Inca nobility.