Homeworks writing service


Tobacco companies of the world economics essay

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. It poses enormous health- and non-health-related costs to the affected individuals, employers, and the society at large.

We also performed hand searching of relevant articles, health reports, and white papers issued by government bodies, international health organizations, and health intervention campaign agencies. Selection criteria The paper includes cost-effectiveness studies from medical journals, health reports, and white papers published between 1992 and July tobacco companies of the world economics essay, but included only eight relevant studies before 1992.

Most of the papers reviewed reported outcomes on smoking prevalence, as well as the direct and indirect costs of smoking and the costs and benefits of smoking cessation interventions. We excluded papers that merely described the effectiveness of an intervention without including economic or cost considerations.

We also excluded papers that combine smoking cessation with the reduction in the risk of other diseases. Data collection and analysis The included studies were assessed against criteria indicated in the Cochrane Reviewers Handbook version 5.

The costs of smoking can be classified into direct, indirect, and intangible costs. The economic burden of smoking estimated in terms of GDP reveals that smoking accounts for approximately 0.

The costs of smoking notwithstanding, it produces some potential economic benefits. The economic activities generated from the production and consumption of tobacco provides economic stimulus.

It also produces huge tax revenues for most governments, especially in high-income countries, as well as employment in the tobacco industry. Income from tobacco companies of the world economics essay tobacco industry accounts for up to 7. Smoking also yields cost savings in pension payments from the premature death of smokers.

Smoking cessation measures could range from pharmacological treatment interventions to policy-based measures, community-based interventions, telecoms, media, and technology TMT -based interventions, school-based interventions, and workplace interventions. The use of pharmacotherapies such as varenicline, NRT, and Bupropion, when combined with GP counseling or other behavioral treatment interventions such as proactive telephone counseling and Web-based deliveryis both clinically effective and cost effective to primary health care providers.

Price-based policy measures such as increase in tobacco taxes are unarguably the most effective means of reducing the consumption of tobacco. Net public benefits from tobacco tax, however, remain positive only when tax rates are between 42. Advertising media, telecommunications, and other technology-based interventions such as TV, radio, print, telephone, the Internet, PC, and other electronic media usually have positive synergistic effects in reducing smoking prevalence especially tobacco companies of the world economics essay combined to deliver smoking cessation messages and counseling support.

However, the outcomes on the cost effectiveness of TMT-based measures have been inconsistent, and this made it difficult to attribute results to specific media.

The differences in reported cost effectiveness may be partly attributed to varying methodological approaches including varying parametric inputs, differences in national contexts, differences in advertising campaigns tested on different media, and disparate levels of resourcing between campaigns.

Due to its universal reach and low implementation costs, online campaign appears to be substantially more cost effective than other media, though it may not be as effective in reducing smoking prevalence.

Workplace-based interventions could represent a sound economic investment to both employers and the society at large, achieving a benefit—cost ratio of up to 8. Implementing smoke-free workplaces would also produce myriads of new quitters and reduce the amount of cigarette consumption, leading to cost savings in direct medical costs to primary health care providers. Workplace interventions are, however, likely to yield far greater economic benefits over the long term, as reduced prevalence tobacco companies of the world economics essay lead to a healthier and more productive workforce.

There are enormous differences in the application and economic measurement of smoking cessation measures across various types of interventions, methodologies, countries, economic settings, and health care systems, and these may have affected the comparability of the results of the studies reviewed.

However, on the balance of probabilities, most of the cessation measures reviewed have not only proved effective but also cost effective in delivering the much desired cost tobacco companies of the world economics essay and net gains to individuals and primary health care providers. Cigarette smoking is the cause of many preventable diseases, a leads to premature deaths, and accounts for a significant proportion tobacco companies of the world economics essay many health inequalities.

More than one quarter of all cancer deaths can be attributed to smoking. These include cancer of the lung, mouth, tobacco companies of the world economics essay, throat, bladder, kidney, pancreas, stomach, liver, and cervix. It is also estimated that globally 600,000 deaths a year are caused by second-hand smoke, and most of these deaths occur among women and children.

Econs Essay

Reducing the prevalence of this menace is thus a worthy cause for health care professionals, the government, and society at large.

This paper reviews the major studies on the economics of tobacco smoking and the economic impact of reducing its prevalence. The paper examines the following research questions: What are the economic costs tobacco companies of the world economics essay benefits of smoking? How effective and cost effective are smoking cessation tobacco companies of the world economics essay in terms of delivering cost savings and net gains to individuals and primary health care providers?

The economic impact of smoking is twofold: Beyond the face value of cigarette purchases, the costs of tobacco use have more far-reaching health and economic implications on private individuals, families, employers, and taxpayers. The costs of smoking have thus been tobacco companies of the world economics essay as direct, indirect, and intangible. The tobacco companies of the world economics essay costs of smoking include the cost of illness due to smoking on affected patients, and the health care expenditure involved in the treatment of smoking-related illnesses eg, cost of drugs and administrative services.

In the UK, direct costs of smoking arise from GP consultations, prescriptions for drugs, and various costs related to treating diseases attributable to smoking. The direct and indirect costs of smoking can be measured b and hence are tangible costs, whereas there are some costs that cannot be easily quantified, such as loss of life, and the burden of pain and suffering caused by smoking-induced illness.

Just as there are costs emanating from smoking, there are also benefits associated with reducing the incidence or prevalence of smoking. Benefits here refer to the losses that could be avoided by the individuals who quit smoking, such as cost savings from smoking in terms of reduced morbidity and mortality, reductions in the costs of illness, and the marginal risk of disease. There is a growing body of literature suggesting that smoking cessation interventions, coupled with regulations and legislations, are effective ways to reduce smoking prevalence.

First, we summarize the search methods and selection procedure used to conduct the systematic review, and then we examine the quality assessment method used in evaluating the study quality. The paper utilizes two main approaches used by medical researchers for economic evaluation c: The aim of this paper is to identify evidence on the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions and also to identify data that may be of use in the economic modeling of the cost savings and net benefits derivable from investing in smoking cessation programs in the UK.

The Economic Impact of Smoking and of Reducing Smoking Prevalence: Review of Evidence

Two specific pieces of work are presented in this review. These will be examined under six broad headings: The rationale for narrowing down to UK is to assess how these various types of interventions tobacco companies of the world economics essay applied in a single country case study. Here, the costs and benefits of smoking in the UK are examined, as well as the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of UK-specific smoking cessation intervention programs.

The section also discusses some of the known limitations of the study. Research Methods Search methods and selection criteria: We captured major economic studies on the health and economic impact of smoking and cost effectiveness of tobacco policies published between 1992 and 2014, but included only eight relevant studies before 1992.

We also performed hand-searching of relevant articles, which produced additional 52 papers, including useful non-economic studies, and health reports and white papers issued by government bodies, international health organizations and health intervention campaign agencies that are usually not included in the electronic databases. This brings the total number of studies included in the review to 151.

Of this number, 123 were strictly peer-reviewed medical journals, while 28 were useful government public health tobacco companies of the world economics essay and white papers.

This paper benefits strongly from the inclusion and synthesis of high-level evidence from mostly recent studies eg, 2005—2014with the implication that newer and better methods, indicators, or measures have been reported in order to aid economic modeling. Identification of studies Two main electronic databases were searched. The reason for the selection of these databases is that they are both very comprehensive databases containing health care-related studies. To identify relevant studies for this review, we used a detailed search strategy for each database.

These were based on the search strategy developed for PUBMED but revised appropriately for each database to take account of differences such as vocabulary and syntax rules.

Unpublished reports, abstracts, brief and preliminary reports were considered for inclusion on the same basis as published reports. There was no restriction based on language or date. Full copies of the remaining potentially relevant studies were obtained and assessed independently by the authors to ensure that these clearly met tobacco companies of the world economics essay inclusion criteria.

Those that were clearly irrelevant or had insufficient information to make a decision were excluded, or the authors were contacted for further information to aid the decision process. Decisions were based on inclusion criteria, ie, types of studies, types of participants, interventions, and outcome measures used.

Though a substantial part of the evidence on the economics of smoking were drawn from the United States, we tried as much as possible to reflect pockets of evidence from other countries around the world, especially from China, the largest producer and consumer of tobacco tobacco companies of the world economics essay, as well as from Australia, Hong Kong, Korea, Thailand, Taiwan, Sweden, France, Belgium, Denmark, India, Turkey, Netherlands, and Canada. This study reviewed only relevant papers on the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of smoking cessation under six headings: Cost estimates are mostly expressed in US dollars for international evidence except where stated otherwise and in British pounds for UK evidence.

Data extraction and management Data were extracted from published sources using tobacco companies of the world economics essay standard data recording form. Studies that reported primary outcomes were extracted and reviewed. At the first level of screening, we excluded papers that merely described the effectiveness of an intervention without including economic or cost considerations. We also excluded studies that combined smoking cessation with the reduction in the risk of other diseases such as lung cancer, myocardial infarction, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPDstroke, obesity, diabetes, coronary heart disease, etc.

At the second level of screening, we excluded papers in which study design, methods, or outcomes did not appear to be consistent with those of the review as well as publications that appeared more than once in both databases. Figure 1 illustrates the study selection process more clearly.