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Examination results in mathematics and english essay

For more than 100 years, education and health academics have been researching study techniques examination results in mathematics and english essay figure out which ones work the best. But, in practice, many of us use examination results in mathematics and english essay variety of reading comprehension and study skills together when preparing for exams e.

Information about effective studying strategies should be free! In this article, I want to share 9 evidence-based techniques I use to learn things for exams. Maths, English, Anatomyrather than tests of intelligence or personality e. Do practice tests What is it? It includes doing mock tests and activities where you practice recalling information, e.

Why does it work? No-one likes doing tests and people tend to avoid them where ever possible. Practice testing helps you remember things e.

We think testing has two effects: In other words, testing yourself forces you to search your long-term memory, which activates related information, and forms an association between the information you are attempting to retrieve and information already in your long-term memory e.

How to do it? If possible, get your hands on practice tests that are similar to the exam you will be taking.

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You can also create your own flashcards with questions on one side and answers on the other there are lots of free and low-cost options to create virtual flashcards online, e.

Ankiwhich also uses the next strategy. With any system or method, you want clear feedback on whether your answers are right or wrong, so make sure you write the complete correct answers on the back of the flashcards and look for model answers to go with practice exams. When studying for my Hong Kong conveyancing exam, I did five practice tests, carefully comparing my responses to the model answers.

Studies show that practice testing is more effective than concept mapping, note-taking, imagery use, and re-reading. Space out your study distributed practice What is it? We all procrastinate, which means we all cram to some degree. And cramming works better than not studying at all. But distributing learning over time helps examination results in mathematics and english essay to remember things more than by cramming sessions together.

There is no one size fits all answer. For example, to remember something for one week, study sessions should be spaced about one or two days apart. To remember something for 5 years, you should revise it examination results in mathematics and english essay 6 to 12 months Cepeda et al. For big exams e. When I was studying speech pathology, there were a number of key principles of assessment and intervention that applied to different subjects.

By revising these principles once a month or so, I found them easy to recall at will during exams.

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I still recall and use them in practice. For example, read this sentence: Across different studies, there are a few variations of the basic question we ask ourselves. As a thought-experiment, I used it to review the Dunlosky paper, and found I could remember many of his key findings without needing to re-read the paper. For the strategy to work, you need to use it frequently. One prompt per page or examination results in mathematics and english essay is not enough. Explain it to yourself in Plain English self-explanation What is it?

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Explaining how new information is related to known information, or explaining steps taken during problem solving. I use this technique when preparing to answer case-based questions.

The strategy has been shown to work across lots of different types of texts and tasks. And it can take a long time to do well, which reduces its usefulness when you are pressed for time or in an exam. Mix and match study problems interleaved practice What is it? Mixing different kinds of problems or materials within a single study session. For example, you might practice trigonometry, geometry and calculus problems in a single session. Or you might tackle three or four kinds of legal problems focusing on different rights and remedies.

One theory is that mixing up different kinds of problems with a single session helps students examination results in mathematics and english essay between different kinds of problems so they can apply the right strategies for each in a test e.

Mixed practice may promote organisational processing because it allows students to compare different kinds of problems more readily. Mixed practice is also more akin to true test conditions than working sequentially through kinds of problems, which may create results like practice testing see strategy examination results in mathematics and english essay, above.

This enabled me to use strategies 1, 2 and 5 together. Results to date suggest that mixed practice may have dramatic results on learning maths skills. In a study comparing students doing one type of problem versus children doing four kinds of problems per session, children working on one kind of problem at a time tended to do better during practice. In my example, I was already fairly comfortable with the content of the topics to be examined before I randomised the questions.

Link words to vivid images to help cue and remember the answers key-word mnemonics What is it?

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Using key-words and mental imagery to associate words and concepts. For example, just say you are trying to learn the French word for tooth la dent. You would develop a vivid mental image of the English key-word tooth somehow interacting with the French translation la dent.

For example, you could imagine a lady dentist pulling out a tooth and giving it a big dent with a big red ladle, to make a la-dent in the tooth.

The more vivid and silly and hence memorable the image, the better! The power of this technique lies in its use of interactive images — images that link the cue with the target.

Results and Performance

The technique has been shown to work with foreign-language vocabulary, definitions of scientific terms, state capital memorisation, elements of the periodic table e. I have used the technique successfully to memorise several lists of words and concepts over the years, from case names lists for law exams, to the capitals of countries for a trivia competitionto cranial nerve pathways for a speech pathology examto Bahasa Indonesian vocabulary for something to do while stuck in transit on a business trip.

As per the studies quoted above, I have found the technique quite time and labour intensive, and less useful for abstract, dynamic or complex topics. But it takes lots of time to learn to do it well, examination results in mathematics and english essay some evidence suggests it does not lead to long-term retention of information e. Imagery for text learning What is it? Attempting to form mental images of text materials when reading or listening. As you listen or read, e.

Using prior knowledge of the world to generate a picture of a story may also improve your understanding e. This technique may work better for listening tasks than for reading examination results in mathematics and english essay Brooks, 1968. I tend to use this when reading fiction for pleasure to enhance my comprehension of the details otherwise I find myself skimming! I used it for English exams back when I was in high school. The strategy seems to have a wider scope of potential use than key-word mnemonics.

However, examination results in mathematics and english essay benefits of the technique are limited to image-friendly materials and, like key-word mnemonics, may fade over time without upkeep.

Summarising What is it? Writing summaries of texts. Sounds easy in principle! It also boosts organisational processing because it makes us connect the ideas in a text to each other. Writing about the important points in your own examination results in mathematics and english essay produces a benefit over and above simply selecting the important information e.

When studying for my closed book law exams, I often prepared one paragraph summaries of each case on my case list, usually following a set format e. I would then prepare a summary of the summary, e. Even though making summaries sounds sensible, and is a well-known reading comprehension techniquethe usefulness of the strategy for exam preparation depends on how well you can summarise. If you summarise the wrong things, the strategy can backfire. Many learners need training to summarise well, which makes the strategy less accessible than some of the others mentioned above.

A favourite of students! Researchers cite the isolation effect e. For instance, if you are given this list: Another theory is that the effort of actively selecting information should benefit memory more than simply reading it e. I used to highlight way too much and have taught myself to focus on main points, and to asterix points requiring follow-up or further thought.

How to improve exam results: 9 free evidence-based DIY strategies

In many studies, highlighting has been shown to do little to boost performance. The quality of the highlighting is crucial to whether it helps students learn e.

Training students to highlight more effectively e. Disturbingly, there is some evidence that highlighting may actually hurt performance on high level tasks like reading between the lines i. Clinical bottom line Learning to use effective studying examination results in mathematics and english essay can help students improve their test results.

Most of the study strategies summarised in this article are easy to put into action — even for students in upper primary school. If used properly, these techniques can help students accomplish their academic, work and life goals. Promising Directions from Cognitive and Educational Psychology. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 14 1 4-58.