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The many events that has helped evolve the jews as a nation throughout jewish history

Synopsis This chapter conveys the history, religion, and culture of the Jewish people from its Biblical origins to the present. These characteristics of the Jews set them apart from their neighbors and contributed to the prejudice, discrimination and persecution that were the roots of the Holocaust. The history of the Jewish people from origins to the present. The basic rituals, observances, and customs of the Jewish religion. Why the the many events that has helped evolve the jews as a nation throughout jewish history between the religion and culture of the Jews and those of their neighbors caused conflict, which was a precursor of anti-Semitism.

That the physical isolation of Eastern European Jewry in ghettos slowed assimilation. Evolving out of a common religion, the Jewish people developed customs, culture, and an ethical system which identified them as Jews regardless of their individual religious attitudes. The ancient Jews were both conquerors and the the many events that has helped evolve the jews as a nation throughout jewish history. Where other peoples assimilated, the Jews adopted some local customs and folkways, but held onto the basic tenets of their religion and culture.

This chapter describes the history, religion, customs and culture of the Jewish people. Judaism Judaism is the religion of the Jews. There are an estimated 14 million followers of the Jewish religion around the world. Other nations with significant Jewish populations are France 650 thousandGreat Britain 400 thousandCanada 300 thousandArgentina 300 thousandand Brazil 150 thousand. Judaism was the first religion based on monotheism, the belief in one God.

All of the major Western religions found their roots in Judaism. A central tenet of Judaism is that God, the Creator of the World, made a special agreement called a covenant berit in Hebrew with Abraham, from whom the Jewish people descended.

According to Judaism, the Jews were chosen to be His servants although God is the universal Creator the many events that has helped evolve the jews as a nation throughout jewish history all humanity.

Jews traditionally do not encourage converts, although converts are accepted after they demonstrate knowledge about the faith and their sincerity in accepting its laws. The Creator in Judaistic theology is all-knowing and does not have a corporal form.

Judaism is traditionally decentralized. There is no equivalent to a Pope or other central, international decision-making authority who determines religious dogma or practice. Each Jewish congregation is responsible for its own affairs and is usually, but not always, led by a spiritual leader called a rabbi. Many rabbis are trained in a seminary or university established for the purpose of furthering religious scholarship and teaching.

Each of the major groups of Judaism Orthodox, Conservative, Reform, and Reconstructionist has its own institution in the United States for training rabbis, and each sect, and for that matter, each congregation, maintains its own practices, traditions, and interpretations of Jewish law.

Jewish worship and study often takes place at a synagogue, and religious services often include prayer and readings from the Torah. Services held in a synagogue are traditionally led by a rabbi and assisted by a cantor, who leads the chanting and songs which accompany prayer.

The major body of Jewish law is found in the Torah, which consists of the Five Books of Moses also known as the Pentateuch and which forms the first part of the Old Testament. This law has been supplemented by oral law and interpretations of the law which comprise the Talmud. The Jewish system of law, also referred to as Halacha, includes a civil and criminal justice system which is followed by observant Jews.

Halacha regulates Jewish life, such as marriage and divorce, burial, relationships with non-Jews and education. As is true with adherents of all religions, the degree to which individual Jews observe Jewish laws and traditions varies. Among the practices of observant Jews are: Dietary Laws Strict Jewish law requires that Jews may not eat certain foods, such as pork, certain seafood, or food without the blood removed, and may not mix dairy and meat products at the same meal.

These laws also describe how animals must be slaughtered so as to minimize suffering. Jewish Calendar Jewish law utilizes both a lunar and solar calendar to set the dates of holidays. The dates of holidays and festivals are determined by a lunar calendar, which is based on the phases of the moon. The time from new moon to new moon is 29 days, 12.

History of Judaism

Jewish months are thus either 29 or 30 days. Because a solar year is 365. The Jewish Sabbath and holidays traditionally begin at sunset the evening before the day the Sabbath or holiday is observed. Thus the Jewish holiday of Rosh Hashanah in 1990 was observed September 21st and 22nd, but began at sunset on September 20th.

Observant Jews do not perform any work on the Sabbath, which is spent in prayer and religious study. In addition to the Sabbath, Jews both in ancient times and today celebrate holidays and festivals, each of which have their own rituals associated with observance. Rosh Hashanah New Year: Rosh Hashanah marks the new year of the Jewish calendar. It is both a joyous and a solemn holiday.

Jews around the world do not work and do not attend school on that day. This is the holiest day of the The many events that has helped evolve the jews as a nation throughout jewish history calendar. Jews do not go to work or to school on Yom Kippur, and refrain from eating or drinking for the entire holiday. It is considered by Jews to be the day in which every individual is judged by God, and thus it is a solemn day marked by prayer and repentance. Passover is an eight-day festival commemorating the freeing of the Israelites from Egyptian bondage.

A ritual feast on the first two nights of this holiday, called a Seder, includes the recounting of the Passover story. Ritual foods are eaten during these eight days which are not eaten at other times of the year. Observant Jews do not work or go to school the first two days and the last two days of this holiday. Shavuot Feast of Weeks: Shavuot is a festival which marks the giving of the Torah to the Israelites at Mt.

It is a two-day holiday which is often celebrated by having an all night study session on religious topics with friends. Observant Jews do not work or go to school on Shavuot. Succot is a commemoration of the wandering of the Israelites in the wilderness before they received the Torah.

It is also a commemoration of the final harvest before the winter rains. It is an eight-day holiday, and observant Jews do not work or go to school the first two days or the last day. It is customary to build a structure called a Succah as a symbol of the types of structures the Israelites lived in while they were wandering in the dessert. Simchat Torah commemorates the conclusion and the beginning of the cycle of Torah readings which lasts one year. It occurs the day after Succot ends.

Observant Jews do not work or go to school on Simchat Torah. Hanukkah is an eight-day holiday which marks the victory of the ancient Israelites, led by Judah Maccabee, over the Syrian-Greek army in 165 B. In recent times, it has become traditional to exchange gifts on this holiday. Although Hanukkah usually occurs during the time of Christmas, it is in no way a comparable holiday to Christmas for the Jews.

Purim is a minor festival of the Jewish calendar which commemorates the triumph of the Jews over a murderous plot by an advisor to King Ahasuerus in Persia in the fifth century B. It is a joyous holiday and is celebrated by reading the Megillah a scroll which tells the story of Purim by baking hamintaschen triangular-shaped cookies containing jams and by dressing up in costumes.

Ritual Clothing For centuries, observant Jews have dressed differently than the many events that has helped evolve the jews as a nation throughout jewish history of their host countries while engaged in secular and non-secular activities. During prayer, Jewish males have traditionally worn the following: Skull cap Kippah, yarmulka: Life Cycle Events a. Circumcision Bris male Jewish children are circumcised on the eighth day after their birth as a sign of a covenant between Abraham and God.

The boy is given his name at this ceremony. The comparable ceremony for girls is a Bat Mitzvah which varies in religious significance depending on the the many events that has helped evolve the jews as a nation throughout jewish history of Judaism. The Ketuba describes the conditions of marriage.

The marriage ceremony, as in many other religions, has been ritualized and often includes the breaking of a glass by the groom to symbolize the destruction of the Temple. Jewish law recognizes divorce, made official by a document called a Get.

Even if observant Jews obtain a civil divorce, the spouse is unable to remarry in the absence of obtaining a Get from a Jewish court. Loved ones observe a seven-day period of mourning called Shiva at which time religious services are held in the home of the bereaved.

The anniversary of the death of a parent Yahrzeit is observed by lighting a candle and saying a prayer Kaddish in memory. Abraham was the first to forsake the polytheism and idol worshipping of his people for a belief in one God. He was sold as a slave to the Egyptians by his own brothers. However, in approximately 1580 B. In the Book of Exodus, the story of Moses and his liberation of the Jews from Egyptian bondage is told. Moses led the Jews out of Egypt after the Egyptians were afflicted with ten plagues.

While in the desert, Moses ascended Mt. Sinai and, according to tradition, returned with the Ten Commandments from God as well as the Torah.

After capturing Jericho, the Israelites systematically conquered the rest of Israel. Challenges from Canaanites and Philistines were repelled, the latter people suffering a defeat at the hands of Samson. The Israelites, seeking an alternative to theocratic leadership, convinced the religious leader at the time, the prophet The many events that has helped evolve the jews as a nation throughout jewish history, to anoint a king.

The first king was Saul 1020-1000 B. However, Samuel became disillusioned over the autocratic way King Saul ruled the country. David had won renown as the warrior who had slain the giant Goliath. David was the eventual victor of a power struggle, which eventually made him king over all of Israel. He was noted for lavish building projects, including the First Temple in Jerusalem.

There was discontent among the tribes which settled in the north concerning the heavy taxation and forced labor policies of King Solomon, which he felt necessary to create his lavish palaces and public buildings.