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The issues on the unification and guidance of muslims under the seljuk empire

Medieval Muslim Empires The history of Islam has often been linked to the existence of an Islamic state or empire. From its beginnings, Islam existed and spread as a community-state; it was both a faith and a political order. Within centuries after his death, Muhammad's local Arabian polity became a vast empire, extending from North Africa to Southeast Asia.

The development of Islam and state institutions the caliphate, law, education, the military, social services were intertwined. Again, the Prophetic period provided the paradigm for later generations. For it was in Medina that the Quranic mandate took on form and substance under the guidance and direction of the Prophet.

The Medinan community formed a total framework for state, society, and culture. It epitomized the Quranic mandate for Muslims as individuals and as a community umma "to transform the world itself through action in the world. It inspired Muhammad to transform a local shiekdom into a transtribal state.

Muhammad and the Medinan State Seventh-century Arabia was dominated by two great empires: Within one hundred years, both empires would fall before the issues on the unification and guidance of muslims under the seljuk empire armies of Allah as Arabia united under the umbrella of Islam, which provided a principle of organization and motivation. Under the successors of the Prophet, a vast empire and a commonwealth of Islamic states would come to dominate much of the world.

Its missionaries would be soldiers, merchants, and mystics. Islam would provide the basis of community identity and the rationale or legitimacy for rulers and their policies of expansion and conquest. Thus, for example, the wars of conquest were termed fath, "opening or victory" of the way for Islam.

As Muhammad governed a transtribal state in the name of Islam, so too the Islamic community became associated with an expansive empire. Why and how did this come to pass? Shortly after the surrender of Mecca, Muhammad turned his attention to the extension and consolidation of his authority over Arabia.

Envoys were sent and alliances forged with surrounding tribes and rulers.

The fiercely independent Bedouin tribes of Arabia were united behind the Prophet of Islam through a combination of force and diplomacy. As Muhammad was both head of state and messenger of God, so too were the envoys and soldiers of the state the envoys and soldiers of Islam, its first missionaries. Along with their treaties and armies, they brought the Quran and the teachings of their faith.

They spread a way of life that affected the political and social order as well as individual life and worship. Islam encompassed both a faith and a sociopolitical system. Ideally, this new order was to be a community of believers, acknowledging the ultimate sovereignty of God, living according to His law, obeying His Prophet, and dedicating their lives to spreading God's rule and law.

This was the message and vision that accompanied Arab armies as they burst out of Arabia and established their supremacy throughout the Middle East. What is most striking about the early expansion of Islam is its rapidity and success. Western scholars have marveled at it, and Muslim tradition has viewed the conquests as a miraculous proof or historic validation of the truth of Islam's claims and a sign of God's guidance.

Within a decade, Arab forces overran the Byzantine and Persian armies, exhausted by years of warfare, and conquered Iraq, Syria, Palestine, Persia, and Egypt. The momentum of these early victories was the issues on the unification and guidance of muslims under the seljuk empire to a series of brilliant battles under great generals like Khalid ibn al-Walid and Amr ibn al-As, which extended the boundaries of the Muslim empire to Morocco and Spain in the west and across Central Asia to India in the east.

They replaced the conquered countries, indigenous rulers and armies, but preserved much of their government, bureaucracy, and culture. For many in the conquered territories, it was no more than an exchange of masters, one that brought peace to peoples demoralized and disaffected by the casualties and heavy taxation that resulted from the years of Byzantine-Persian warfare.

Local communities were free to continue to follow their own way of life in internal, domestic affairs.

In many ways, local populations found Muslim rule more flexible and tolerant than that of Byzantium and Persia. Religious communities were free to practice their faith to worship and be governed by their religious leaders and laws in such areas as marriage, divorce, and inheritance.

In exchange, they were required to pay tribute, a poll tax jizya that entitled them to Muslim protection from outside aggression and exempted them from military service. Thus, they were called the "protected ones" dhimmi. Most of the Christian churches, such as the Nestorians, Monophysites, Jacobites, and Copts, were persecuted as heretics and schismatics by Christian orthodoxy.

For these reasons, some Jewish and Christian communities aided the invading the issues on the unification and guidance of muslims under the seljuk empire, regarding them as less oppressive than their imperial masters. In many ways, the conquests brought a Pax Islamica to an embattled area: The conquests destroyed little: The Muslims tolerated Christianity, but they disestablished it; henceforward Christian life and liturgy, its endowments, politics and theology, would be a private and not a public affair.

By an exquisite irony, Islam reduced the status of Christians to that which the Christians had earlier thrust upon the Jews, with one difference.

Ottoman Empire (1301-1922)

The reduction in Christian status was merely judicial; it was unaccompanied by either systematic the issues on the unification and guidance of muslims under the seljuk empire or a blood lust, and generally, though not everywhere and at all times, unmarred by vexatious behavior. A common issue associated with the spread of Islam is the role of jihad, so-called holy war.

While Westerners are quick to characterize Islam as a religion spread by the sword, modern Muslim apologists sometimes explain jihad as simply defensive in nature.

In its most general sense, jihad in the Quran and in Muslim practice refers to the obligation of all Muslims to strive jihad, self-exertion or struggle to follow God's will. This includes both the struggle to lead a virtuous life and the universal mission of the Muslim community to spread God's rule and law through teaching, preaching, and, where necessary, armed conflict.

Contrary to popular belief, the early conquests did not seek to spread the faith through forced conversion but to spread Muslim rule. Many early Muslims regarded Islam as a solely Arab religion. Moreover, from an economic perspective, increase in the size of the community through conversion diminished Arab Muslims' share in the spoils of conquest. As Islam penetrated new areas, people were offered three options: The astonishing expansion of Islam resulted not only from armed conquest but also from the first two peaceful options.

Similarly, in later centuries, in many areas of Africa, the Indian subcontinent, and Southeast Asia, the effective spread of Islam would be due primarily to Muslim traders the issues on the unification and guidance of muslims under the seljuk empire Sufi mystic missionaries who won converts by their example and their preaching.

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The Caliphate 632-1258 Given Muhammad's formative and pivotal role, his death 632 threatened to radically destabilize the community. Who was to lead? What was to happen to the community? The companions the issues on the unification and guidance of muslims under the seljuk empire the Prophet moved quickly to steady and reassure the community.

Abu Bakr, an early follower of Muhammad, announced the death of the Prophet to the assembled faithful: If any of you has worshipped Muhammad, let me tell you that Muhammad is dead. But if you worship God, then know that God is living and will never die! Issues of succession and secession were to plague the early community.

The caliphate 632-1258 has traditionally been divided into three periods: During that time, a vast empire was created with successive capitals in Medina, Kufa, Damascus, and Baghdad.

Stunning political success was complemented by a cultural florescence in law, theology, philosophy, literature, medicine, mathematics, science, and art. The first four caliphs were all companions of the Prophet: Their rule is especially significant not only for what they actually did, but also because the period of Muhammad and the Rightly Guided Caliphs came to be regarded in Sunni Islam as the normative period.

It provides the idealized past to which Muslims have always looked back for inspiration and guidance, a time to be remembered and emulated. The vast majority of Muslims Sunni believe that Muhammad died without designating his replacement or establishing a system for the selection of his successor. After an initial period of uncertainty, the Prophet's companions, the elders or leaders of Medina, selected or acknowledged Abu Bakr, an early convert and the Prophet's father-in-law, as caliph khalifa, successor or deputy.

Abu Bakr's designation as leader was symbolized by the offering of baya oatha handclasp used by the Arabs to seal a contract, in this case an oath of obedience and allegiance.

Abu The issues on the unification and guidance of muslims under the seljuk empire had been a close companion and a trusted adviser of Muhammad; he was a man respected for his sagacity and piety. Muhammad had appointed him to lead the Friday community prayer in his absence. As caliph, Abu Bakr was the political and military leader of the community.

Although not a prophet, the caliph enjoyed religious prestige as head of the community of believers umma. This was symbolized in later history by the caliph's right to lead the Friday prayer and the inclusion of his name in its prayers. Having resolved the question of political leadership and succession, Abu Bakr turned to the consolidation of Muslim rule in Arabia.

Muhammad's death had precipitated a series of tribal rebellions. Many tribal chiefs claimed that their allegiance had been based on a political pact with Medina that ceased with the Prophet's death. Tribal independence and factionalism, long a part of Arab history, once more threatened the unity and identity of the new Islamic state. Abu Bakr countered that the unity of the community was based on the interconnectedness of faith and politics and undertook a series of battles that later Muslim historians would call the wars of apostasy ridda.

Relying on Khalid ibn al-Walid, whom Muhammad had dubbed "the sword of Allah," he crushed the tribal revolt, consolidating Muslim rule over the entire Arabian Peninsula, and thus preserved the unity and solidarity of the Islamic community-state. Abu Bakr's successor, Umar, initiated the great period the issues on the unification and guidance of muslims under the seljuk empire expansion and conquest.

One of the great military leaders of his time, he added the title "Commander of the Faithful" amir al-muminin to that of "Successor" or "Deputy of the issues on the unification and guidance of muslims under the seljuk empire Prophet of God.

On his deathbed, Umar appointed an "election committee" shura, consultation to select the next caliph. After due consultation, the council of electors chose Uthman ibn Affan from the Umayyad clan, a leading Meccan family. This was accompanied by the traditional sign of allegiance, the clasping of hands. Thus, based on the practice of the first three caliphs, a pattern was established for selecting the caliph from the Quraysh tribe through a process characterized by consultation and an oath of allegiance baya.

Before long, tribal factionalism and the threat of rebellion resurfaced in the community. Uthman's family had been among the strongest foes of the Prophet. Although personally pious, Uthman lacked the presence and leadership skills of his predecessors.

Accusations that the caliph was weak and guilty of nepotism fueled political intrigue. In 656, Uthman was assassinated by a group of mutineers from Egypt.

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The caliph's murder was the first in a series of Muslim rebellions and tribal fratricides that would plague the Islamic community's political development.

Ali was devoted to Muhammad and among the first to embrace Islam. He had married Fatima, the only surviving child of Muhammad and Khadijah, with whom he had two the issues on the unification and guidance of muslims under the seljuk empire, Hasan and Husayn. Ali was a charismatic figure who inspired fierce loyalty and commitment.

Many of Ali's supporters Alids believed that leadership of the Islamic community should remain within the family of the Prophet and that, indeed, Muhammad had designated Ali as his rightful successor and heir. For these partisans of Ali, later to be called Shii shiat-u-Ali, party of Alithe first three caliphs were interlopers who had denied Ali his rightful inheritance.