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A study on why transport policy is important to the european union

Transport is more than just a question of mobility: Without transport, there is no trade, no movement of goods or people, no A study on why transport policy is important to the european union Market and even less the European Union. From the beginning the European project has endeavoured to create a "European area of transport" even though reticence on the part of the Member States has often impeded this ambition.

At present the revival of the European economy is dependent on a revised, renewed "European transport policy". Although the European Commission has just announced the financing a study on why transport policy is important to the european union over 250 projects for a total of 13.

I - Transport, a factor of competitiveness for Europe I. The management of the logistics chain is the focus of business strategy Today logistics cannot be reduced to a simple support function the cost of which simply needs to be reduced.

On the contrary it must form the heart of a company's strategy. The increasing differentiation of products means the development of logistics solutions to take the product to the end consumer in the shortest possible time which in turn demands a dense, meshed network and reliable, quality services. The globalisation of production has shattered the value chain between several countries even continents, and it is vital to keep this in view. The continuous adaptation of these production chains demands a great deal of flexibility in terms of modes of transport.

Hence the trading of raw materials relies on the ability to manage the logistics between the various manufacturing sites according to fluctuating prices; this explains why traders increasingly invest in transport and storage infrastructures so that they can adapt their logistics strategies in real time.

The dynamic of the Single Market depends on dense, reliable, quality transport networks.

I - Transport, a factor of competitiveness for Europe

The concentration of investments and the search for synergy helps towards gains in productivity. Since the industrialisation of knowledge needs proximity, mobility within these territories is obviously vital and it is hardly surprising that their transport networks are amongst the densest in the world.

Productive centres responding to a logic of territorial specialisation need to be linked together by motorways, air links, railways, canals and pipelines.

This is the function of the Brenner Tunnel for example linking to the two highly productive regions of Bavaria and Venetia. Conversely it would be wrong to believe that the liaison between two regions precedes their specialisation. Hence far from being a lever of growth the arrival of the TGV in a small town more often than not brings it within the sphere of influence of the grand metropole to which it is then linked. Major transport infrastructures do not structure a territory as much a study on why transport policy is important to the european union they polarise them extending the spheres of influence of the most productive centres.

Finally in order to take full advantage of the European market businesses need access to all consumers. Transport systems should link the most distant valleys and the most isolated islands. It is important for fresh products to be delivered on time, that the customised T-shirt bears the right name, that even someone living in the north of Sweden can import Portuguese wine if he so desires it.

The Common Market needs competitive transport systems to structure the value chain, foster innovation and support consumption, i.

The development of the Single Market is therefore intrinsically linked to that of "Transport Europe". Transport Europe is moving forward too slowly II. The States are still attached to their prerogatives and relinquish a study on why transport policy is important to the european union grudgingly In spite of this requirement on the part of Europe the continent is still a mosaic of national transport systems which struggle to overcome their differences, unlike the USA where transport now seems to be continent scale.

The Member States are aware of what is at stake but they only relinquish their prerogatives after hard fought community battles.

Abstract :

Hence the ambition to have a "common transport policy" to guarantee the "free movement of goods, people, services and capital" in support of the Single Market under the Rome Treaty has come to nought since the States have a study on why transport policy is important to the european union it to the unanimity principle to prevent these measures having "a serious effect on the standard of living and on employment in certain areas and on the operation of transport facilities [1] "which in practice hindered all progress until the 1980's.

Transport has remained a subject that excites passions. For a long time often nationalised transport systems, were a study on why transport policy is important to the european union to conquer national space the Zollverein road network in Germany in the 1830's, the Freycinet river network in France at the end of the 19th century etc. The European Court of Justice's decision of 22nd May 1985 decided that "the international transport of freight and passengers must be open to all businesses in the Community and must not be the focus of discrimination due to nationality or place of establishment of the transporter," and this was the sign for the true launch of the European transport policy which was confirmed by the Single Act of 1986.

The qualified majority substituted unanimity, thereby opening the way to greater European integration in view of the creation of the Single Market - which was then confirmed by the Maastricht Treaty. Transport Europe was first built on its roads Europe, which is caught between national attachment to transport and border breaking globalisation, has found legitimacy as it has conceived a "European transport area": But these vital investments - whether it involves the adoption of the same European road traffic monitoring systems ERTMS or joint air traffic control rules Single Sky are of size and take time.

Road transport was both the first liberalised mode of transport in the 1980's and has been the greatest success in terms of European policy.

But whilst other countries liberalised all of their transport systems simultaneously [2]Europe opened its systems up progressively. The lag factor gave road transport a cutting competitive edge since it had time to adapt to the new rules and become more competitive than its future rivals. The consolidation of the sector around major players did not prevent the emergence of smaller logisticians, thereby creating a self-managing dynamic. Advantageous pricing can be added to a study on why transport policy is important to the european union initial edge enjoyed by the road sector: Everything worked to make road transport dominant in Europe in just a few decades.

OECD and the author's calculations Source: Road transport also has to undergo a green revolution III. The EU has banked on "ecological" modes of transport rail and river against road But although road transport matches requirements in terms of flexibility and the capillarity of businesses it has significant environmental impact.

As it became aware of the impact of congestion, threats to safety and the effects that the sharp development of road transport was having on the environment, the European Union adopted a "modal shift" principle in its White Paper on the future development of the common transport policy adopted in December 1992, ie the transfer of road traffic towards less pollutant means of transport such as rail and river. Remorseful, it seems that the European Union has focused its action a study on why transport policy is important to the european union promoting alternative modes of transport via the unification of the European area interoperability, harmonisation of working conditionsthe development of infrastructures trans-European network and the promotion of quality transport systems strict safety requirements, liberalisation of transport services to enhance productivityand via the neglect and even "demonization" of road transport.

Road transport needs an "energy transition" This negative vision of road transport, a legacy of the 20th century, should however be differentiated. Practices can evolve as seen in the success of car-pooling [8]. Logistics might also move towards practices like this. The development of electric utility vehicles and semi-automatic driving, as well as geolocation solutions, could help towards an "energy transition in road transport. Measuring the environmental impact of a mode of transport is no longer gauged by its pollutant emissions but rather in the energy mix of the place used in the place it is being developed.

An electric vehicle in service in an electricity producing region based on coal aims rather to develop a market than to reduce CO2 emissions. By taking an average energy mix and the level of use observed CO2 emissions by trains are comparable to those of coaches. These studies deserve to be completed for logistics reasons. If we cannot transport all merchandise by water or rail, we must enhance the economic and environmental competitiveness of road freight.

Europe is best placed to undertake a transition of this nature since the deployment of clean vehicles and associated infrastructures electric, hybrid a study on why transport policy is important to the european union energy mix charging stations cannot be limited to one country only. Transporting everything by rail is a myth, to which a pragmatic optimisation approach for all modes of transport is preferable IV.

Geographic, economic and historical reality makes a return to a system without road transport illusory Moreover the way various modes of transport are distributed seems to have stabilised since the beginning of the 2000's after 30 years of strong growth in the road sector.

Several structural factors can explain the success of road transport in Europe. The Member States through which major rivers flow and which are close to the sea have a well-developed river transport system. The Member States with a powerful industrial base also have an extremely well developed railway system [10]. Rail freight is particularly well adapted to heavy industrial goods steel, chemicals. Transport infrastructures represent an extremely important capital which has only been accumulated at the cost of constant and high input.

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In turn these investments modify the structure of the economy fostering the scattering of manufacturing zones - since they are better linked together - and territorial specialisation [12]. The accumulation of capital, firstly in infrastructures then manufacturing, creates a situation which every investment effort in other modes of transport would find difficult to reverse. Hence each region has its own specific features which in turn condition its transport offer.

The use of rail is particularly well developed a study on why transport policy is important to the european union the North of Europe and the East: All modes of transport, without exception, must focus on competitiveness and ecological transition Nearly 30 years of continuous support to a modal shift has led to modest results. In a report published at the beginning of 2015 the European Court of Auditors acknowledges that "more than ten years after having been declared a priority by the EU, the development of this mode of transport river is lagging behind in relation to road and rail.

Undoubtedly it is time to admit that the modal shift is no longer a stake since it supposes a disproportionate financial effort whilst constraints are still high.

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A more pragmatic approach based on all modes of transport and which is adapted to the realities of a study on why transport policy is important to the european union terrain is preferable. The different modes of transport are not competing but must be considered as complementary; rail transport enables massive, long distance transit but client access has to be undertaken by the more flexible road route. But companies do not like this interoperability because it increases risks timing, surcharge and intermediate reloading change of mode.

They have to be reassured by guaranteeing the same level of service for all modes of transports and their interconnections platforms enabling the transfer of a container from a ship to a train and then to a lorrywhich supposes a clear, regular policy on the part of the public authorities as well as a great deal of work on the existing network, to eradicate bottlenecks bridges that are too low over a canal, urban rail nodes where passenger traffic takes priority over freight and build points for transition from one mode to another.

Likewise the work to improve energy performance cannot just be reduced to the goal of the modal shift but must focus on the technologies and the energy mix used: This is even truer of air and maritime transport. But there is not just one blanket solution to be implemented across all of Europe.

It supposes an approach which is less "top-down" and technocratic than that of corridors and an ability to work closer to social and economic realities. Optimising and maintaining what exists rather than developing the network Intermodality and energy transition in the road sector require investments. The present system needs modernisation and not extension.

This is all the easier since Europe's infrastructure network is of excellent quality on average. In 2011 11 EU Member States featured amongst the world's 15 most dense motorway networks, including A study on why transport policy is important to the european union and Germany [14]. Benelux has the most dense network, which is nearly twice that of South Korea which comes second in the ranking however.

The USA for example has a motorway network which is as dense as that of Slovakia. And featuring amongst the twenty best quality transport networks are 11 EU Member States: Only four Member States feature under the world average: Poland, Slovakia, Romania and Bulgaria - but in the knowledge that since 2010 the latter two have progressed immensely. The Netherlands has the best port infrastructure in the world ahead of Singapore and Hong Kong.

It is important to modernise this asset, a factor of attractiveness and competitiveness. The interconnection mechanism EIM "gives priority to the missing links" [16]to development and not to maintenance and regeneration. The Juncker Plan, the EIB and the future calls for tender under the EIM should be financing modernisation and the optimisation of the existing network. It is always pleasant for a government, as it is for the European Commission, to launch major visionary projects.

But these grand projects are becoming less and less profitable and generate maintenance and running costs that are often difficult to assume by the users, which leads to high mobilisation of public funds. Maintenance is less attractive but otherwise more important. Conclusion In its transport policy Europe has a powerful lever a study on why transport policy is important to the european union revive its economy.

This does not mean by the Keynesian magic of major infrastructures but rather by a study on why transport policy is important to the european union up trade within Europe and the rest of the world. The modern economy needs local, dense networks to create innovative ecosystems, transnational links joining them together and extended capillary networks so enable access to the entire European market.

In a context in which public finances are severely constrained and with the launch of the Juncker Plan as well as the European Interconnection Mechanism, it is vital for to have targeted transport investments for maximum effect. But with mitigated success Europe has focused a great deal on developing rail and river infrastructures to the detriment of the road networks and more modest but more decisive projects.