Homeworks writing service

2 summarizing and contrasting two explanatory theories

Based on a dialectical materialist account of history, Marxism posited that capitalismlike previous socioeconomic systems, would inevitably produce internal tensions leading to its own destruction. Marx ushered in radical change, advocating proletarian revolution 2 summarizing and contrasting two explanatory theories freedom from the ruling classes. At the same time, Karl Marx was aware that most of the people living in capitalist 2 summarizing and contrasting two explanatory theories did not see how the system shaped the entire operation of society.

Just as modern individuals see private property and the right to pass that property on to their children as natural, many of the members in capitalistic societies see the rich as having earned their wealth through hard work and education, while seeing the poor as lacking in skill and initiative. Marx rejected this type of thinking and termed it false consciousnessexplanations of social problems as the shortcomings of individuals rather than the flaws of society.

Marx wanted to replace this kind of thinking 2 summarizing and contrasting two explanatory theories something Friedrich Engels termed class consciousnessthe workers' recognition of themselves as a class unified in opposition to capitalists and ultimately to the capitalist system itself. In general, Marx wanted the proletarians to rise up against the capitalists and overthrow the capitalist system. The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles.

Freeman and slave, patrician and plebeian, lord and serf, guild-master and journeyman, in a word, oppressor and oppressed, stood in constant opposition to one another, carried on an uninterrupted, now hidden, now open fight, a fight that each time ended, either in a revolutionary re-constitution of society at large, or in the common ruin of the contending classes.

The totality of these relations of production constitutes the economic structure of society, the real foundation, on which arises a legal and political superstructure and to which correspond definite forms of social consciousness. The mode of production of material life conditions the general process of social, political and intellectual life. It is not the consciousness of men that determines their existence, but their social existence that determines their consciousness.

At a certain stage of development, the material productive forces of society come into conflict with the existing relations of production or — this merely expresses the same thing in legal terms — with the property relations within the framework of which they have operated hitherto. From forms of development of the productive forces, these relations turn into their fetters.

Psychology Perspectives

Then an era of social revolution begins. The changes in the economic foundation lead sooner or later to the transformation of the whole immense superstructure.

In studying such transformations it is always necessary to distinguish between the material transformation of the economic conditions of production, which can be determined with the precision of natural science, and the legal, political, religious, artistic or philosophic — 2 summarizing and contrasting two explanatory theories short, ideological forms in which men become conscious of this conflict and fight it out.

Just as one 2 summarizing and contrasting two explanatory theories not judge an individual by what he thinks about himself, so one cannot judge such a period of transformation by its consciousness, but, on the contrary, this consciousness must be explained from the contradictions of material life, from the conflict existing between the social forces of production and 2 summarizing and contrasting two explanatory theories relations of production.

No social order is ever destroyed before all the productive forces for which it is sufficient have been developed, and new superior relations of production never replace older ones before the material conditions for their existence have matured within the framework of the old society.

Mankind thus inevitably sets itself only such tasks as it is able to solve, since closer examination will always show that the problem itself arises only when the material conditions for its solution are already present or at least in the course of formation.

In broad outline, the Asiatic, ancient, [a] feudal and modern bourgeois modes of production may be designated as epochs marking progress in the economic development of society.

The bourgeois mode of production is the last antagonistic form of the social process of production — antagonistic not in the sense of individual antagonism but of an antagonism that emanates from the individuals' social conditions of existence — but the productive forces developing within bourgeois society create also the material conditions for a solution of this antagonism. The prehistory of human society accordingly closes with this social formation.

Although Ward and Gumplowicz developed their theories independently they had much in common and approached conflict from a comprehensive anthropological and evolutionary point-of-view as opposed to Marx's rather exclusive focus on economic factors. Gumplowicz, in Grundriss der Soziologie Outlines of Sociology, 1884describes how civilization has been shaped by conflict between cultures and ethnic groups.

Gumplowicz theorized that large complex human societies evolved from the war and conquest.

Conflict theories

The winner of a war would enslave the losers; eventually a complex caste system develops. European civilization may perish, over flooded by barbaric tribes. 2 summarizing and contrasting two explanatory theories if any one believes that we are safe from such catastrophes he is perhaps yielding to an all too optimistic delusion. There are no barbaric tribes in our neighbourhood to be sure — but let no one be deceived, their instincts lie latent in the populace of European states.

Theories of Explanation

Ward's Dynamic Sociology 1883 was an extended thesis on how to reduce conflict and competition in society and thus optimize human progress.

At the most basic level Ward saw human nature itself to be deeply conflicted between self- aggrandizement and altruismbetween emotion and intellect, and between male and female. These conflicts would be then reflected in society and Ward assumed there had been a "perpetual and vigorous struggle" among various "social forces" that shaped civilization. Functionalism concerns "the effort to impute, as rigorously as possible, to each feature, custom, or practice, its effect on the functioning of a 2 summarizing and contrasting two explanatory theories stable, cohesive system," [8] The chief form of social conflict that Durkheim addressed was crime.

Durkheim saw crime as "a factor in public health, an integral 2 summarizing and contrasting two explanatory theories of all healthy societies. While Marx 2 summarizing and contrasting two explanatory theories on the way individual behaviour is conditioned by social structureWeber emphasized the importance of " social action ," i.

Wright Mills has been called the founder of modern conflict theory. Individuals and resources, in turn, are influenced by these structures and by the "unequal distribution of power and resources in the society. He theorized that the policies of the power elite would result in "increased escalation of conflict, production of weapons of mass destructionand possibly the annihilation of the human race.

In 1983 he founded the Albert Einstein Institutiona non-profit organization devoted to studies and promotion of the use of nonviolent action in conflicts worldwide. For Sharp, political power, the power of any state—regardless of its particular structural organization—ultimately derives from the subjects of the state.

His fundamental belief is that any power structure relies upon the subjects' obedience to the orders of the ruler or rulers. If subjects do not obey, leaders have no power.

Sharp has been called both the "Machiavelli of nonviolence" and the "Clausewitz of nonviolent warfare. Most recently the protest movement that toppled President Mubarak of Egypt drew extensively on his ideas, as well as the youth movement in Tunisia and the earlier ones in the Eastern European colour revolutions that had previously been inspired by Sharp's work. A Guide to Theoretical Thinking 2008: This conflict based on inequality can only be overcome through a fundamental transformation of the existing relations in the society, and is productive of new social relations.

The disadvantaged have structural interests that run counter to the status quowhich, once they are assumed, will lead to social change. Thus, they are viewed as agents of change rather than objects one should feel sympathy for. These and other qualities do not necessarily have to be stunted due to the requirements of the so-called " civilizing process ," or " functional necessity ": The role of theory is in realizing human potential and transforming society, rather than maintaining the power structure.

The opposite aim of theory would be the objectivity and detachment associated with positivismwhere theory is a neutral, explanatory tool. Consensus is a euphemism for 2 summarizing and contrasting two explanatory theories.

Genuine consensus is not achieved, rather the more powerful in societies are able to impose their conceptions on others and have them accept their discourses.

Consensus does not preserve social order, it entrenches stratification, 2 summarizing and contrasting two explanatory theories tool of the current social order. The State serves the particular interests of the most powerful while claiming to represent the interests of all.

Inequality on a global level is characterized by the purposeful underdevelopment of Third World countries, both during colonization and after national independence. The global system i.

Although Sears associates the conflict theory approach with Marxismhe argues that it is the foundation for much " feministpost-modernistanti-racistand lesbian-gay liberationist theories. Critical theory Feminist theory: An approach that recognizes women's political, social, and economic equality to men. An approach that is critical of modernism, with a mistrust of grand theories and ideologies.