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The details of the pearl harbor attack by the japanese and subsequent war

Occurring before a formal declaration of war, it shocked the American public out of isolationism. Roosevelt called December 7, 1941 "… a date which will live in infamy. Both would be democratized and rebuilt through the Marshall Plan. Background to conflict More than a decade's worth of events leading to the attack on Pearl Harbor occurred prior to the actual engagement.

War between Japan and the United States had been a possibility that each nation's militaries planned for since the 1920s, though real tension did not begin until the 1931 invasion of Manchuria by Japan. Over the next decade, Japan expanded slowly into China, the details of the pearl harbor attack by the japanese and subsequent war to all out war between the two in 1937. In 1940 Japan invaded French Indochina in an effort to embargo all imports into China, including war supplies purchased from the U.

This move prompted an eventual American embargo on exporting oil to Japan, which in turn led the Japanese to execute an attack on Pearl Harbor, ensuring the U. Preliminary planning for an attack had begun in very early 1941, initially by Isoroku Yamamoto.

After much contention with Naval Headquarters, permission was finally given for full scale planning by early spring 1941. Over the next months, pilots were trained, equipment prepared.

Japan Bombs Pearl Harbor: July 1941-December 1941

Despite the preparation, the actual order to attack was not given until December the details of the pearl harbor attack by the japanese and subsequent war, after it was apparent all diplomacy would not resolve matters acceptably to the Japanese. The strike's intent was to protect Imperial Japan's advance into Malaya and the Dutch East Indies—for their natural resources such as oil and rubber —by neutralizing the U.

Japan's expansion into Manchuria and later French Indochina were greeted with increasing levels of embargoes and sanctions from the United States. In 1940, the U. In the summer of 1941, the US ceased the export of oil to Japan due to Japan's continued aggressive expansionist policy and because an anticipated eventual American entrance to the war in Europe prompted increased stockpiling and less commercial use of gasoline.

Roosevelt had moved the fleet to Hawaiiand ordered a buildup in the Philippinesto reduce Japanese aggression in China and deter operations against others, including European colonies in Asia. The Japanese high command was certain any attack on the United Kingdom 's colonies would inevitably bring the U. One unit went to Wheeler Field.

Each of the the details of the pearl harbor attack by the japanese and subsequent war waves started with the bombers and ended with the fighters to deter pursuit. Ward carried out an unsuccessful search. The first shots fired, and the first casualties in the attack, occurred when USS Ward eventually attacked and sank a midget submarine, possibly the same one, at 06: USS West Virginia 6: Ford Island NAS 10: Oil storage tanks B: Naval yard Five midget submarines had been assigned to torpedo U.

None of these returned, and only four have since been found. Of the ten sailors aboard, nine died; the only survivor, Kazuo Sakamaki, was captured, becoming the first Japanese prisoner of war. Tyler, presumed the scheduled arrival of six B-17 bombers was the cause because of the direction from which the aircraft were coming only a few degrees separated the two inbound courses ; because he presumed the operators had never seen a formation as large as the U.

Other warnings from ships off the harbor entrance were still being processed, or awaiting confirmation, when the planes began bombing and strafing. Nevertheless, it is not clear any warnings would have had much effect even had they been interpreted correctly and much more promptly. The results the Japanese achieved in the Philippines were essentially the same as at Pearl Harbor, though MacArthur had almost nine hours warning the Japanese had attacked at Pearl and specific orders the details of the pearl harbor attack by the japanese and subsequent war commence operations before they actually struck his command.

The air portion of the attack on Pearl Harbor began at 7: December 7 Hawaiian Time 3: Slow, vulnerable torpedo bombers led the first wave, exploiting the first moments of surprise to attack the most important ships present the battleshipswhile dive bombers attacked U. The 170 planes in the second wave attacked the Air Corps' Bellows Field near Kaneohe on the windward side of the island, and Ford Island. The only significant air opposition came from a handful of P-36 Hawks and P-40 Warhawks that flew 25 sorties.

The famous message, "Air raid Pearl Harbor. This is not drill. Rear Admiral Isaac C.

TOKYO (3 a.m.)

Kidd, and Captain Franklin Van Valkenburgh, commander of USS Arizonaboth rushed to the bridge to direct her defense, until both were killed by an explosion in the forward magazine from an armor piercing bomb hit next to turret two. Both were posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor. One of the destroyers, USS Aylwingot underway with only four officers aboard, all Ensigns, none with more than a year's sea duty. That ship operated at sea for four days before her commanding officer managed to get aboard.

Attack on Pearl Harbor

In all, 14 officers and sailors were awarded the Medal of Honor. A special military award, the Pearl Harbor Commemorative Medal, was later authorized for all military veterans of the attack. This wave and its targets comprised: The separate sections arrived at the attack point almost simultaneously, from several directions.

Ninety minutes after it began, the attack was over; 2,386 Americans died 55 were civilians, most killed the details of the pearl harbor attack by the japanese and subsequent war unexploded American anti-aircraft shells landing in civilian areasa further 1,139 wounded.

Eighteen ships were sunk, including five battleships. B-17 after the attack on Hickam Field. Nearly half of the 1102 American fatalities were caused by the explosion and sinking of USS Arizonathe result of her forward magazine exploding after it was hit by a modified 40 cm 16in shell. USS Nevada attempted to exit the harbor, but was deliberately beached to avoid blocking the harbor entrance. Already damaged by a torpedo and on fire forward, Nevada was targeted by many Japanese bombers as she got underway, sustaining more hits from 250 lb 113 kg bombs as she beached.

USS California was hit by two bombs and two torpedoes. The crew might have kept her afloat, but were ordered to abandon ship just as they were raising power for the pumps. Burning oil from Arizona and West Virginia drifted down on her, and probably made the situation look worse than it was. The disarmed target ship USS Utah was holed twice by torpedoes. USS West Virginia was hit by seven the details of the pearl harbor attack by the japanese and subsequent war, the seventh tearing away her rudder.

USS Oklahoma was hit by four torpedoes, the last two above her belt armor, which caused her to capsize. USS Maryland was hit by two of the converted 40 cm shells, but neither caused serious damage. Although the Japanese concentrated on battleships the largest vessels presentthey did not ignore other targets.

Two destroyers in dry dock were destroyed when bombs penetrated their fuel bunkers. The leaking fuel caught fire, flooding the dry dock in an effort to fight fire made the burning oil rise, and so the ships were burned out. The light cruiser USS Raleigh was holed by a torpedo. The light cruiser USS Honolulu was damaged but remained the details of the pearl harbor attack by the japanese and subsequent war service.

The seaplane tender USS Curtiss was also damaged. USS Shaw was badly damaged when two bombs penetrated her forward magazine. Destroyer USS Shaw exploding after her forward magazine was detonated Almost all of the 188 American aircraft in Hawaii were destroyed or damaged, 155 of those on the ground.

Almost none were actually ready to take off to defend the base, having been parked wingtip to wingtip as a sabotage protection measure.

Of 33 PBYs in Hawaii, 24 were destroyed, and six others damaged beyond repair. The three on patrol returned undamaged. Attacks on barracks killed additional personnel. Friendly fire brought down several U. Fifty-five Japanese airmen and nine submariners were killed in the action.

Of Japan's 387 [6] available planes 350 took part in the attack29 were lost during the battle nine in the first attack wave, 20 in the second with another 74 damaged by antiaircraft fire from the ground.

Possible third wave Several Japanese junior officers, including Fuchida and Genda, urged Admiral Nagumo to carry out a third strike in order to destroy as much of Pearl Harbor's fuel storage, maintenance, and dry dock facilities as possible. Pacific Fleet far more seriously than did loss of its battleships. If they had been wiped out, "serious [American] operations in the Pacific would have been postponed for more than a year. Admiral Chuichi Nagumo, commander of the Carrier Striking Task Force American anti-aircraft performance had improved considerably during the second strike, and two-thirds of Japan's losses were incurred during the the details of the pearl harbor attack by the japanese and subsequent war wave 20 out of 29 lost planes.

In addition, the Admiral was concerned his force was now within range of American land-based bombers. Nagumo was uncertain whether the U. At the time, no Navy had developed night carrier techniques, so this was a substantial risk. The task force's fuel situation did not permit him to remain in waters north of Pearl Harbor much longer since he was at the very limits of logistical support. To do so risked running unacceptably low on fuel, perhaps even having to abandon destroyers en route home.

Yamamoto later regretted Nagumo's decision and categorically stated it had been a great mistake not to order a third strike. Roosevelt signing the Declaration of War against Japan on the day following the attack On December 8, 1941, Roosevelt addressed a joint session of Congress, calling December 7, 1941 "a date which will live in infamy.

Roosevelt signed the declaration the same day.

Continuing to intensify its military mobilization, the U. The Pearl Harbor attack immediately galvanized a divided nation into action.

Pearl Harbor was a sneak attack but hardly a surprise

Overnight, Americans united against Japan, and probably made possible the unconditional surrender position later taken by the Allied Powers. Some historians believe the attack on Pearl Harbor doomed Japan to defeat simply because it awakened the "sleeping beast," regardless of whether the fuel depots or machine shops had been destroyed or even if the carriers had been caught in port and sunk.

Others believe Japanese trade protection was so incompetent, U. Perceptions of treachery in the attack before a declaration of war sparked fears of sabotage or espionage by Japanese sympathizers residing the details of the pearl harbor attack by the japanese and subsequent war the U.

Other factors included misrepresentations of intelligence information none suggesting sabotage, notably by General John DeWitt, commanding Coast Defense on the Pacific Coast, who had personal feelings against Japanese Americans. Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini were under no obligation to declare war under the mutual defense terms of the Tripartite Pact.

However, relations between the European Axis Powers and the United States had deteriorated since 1937. Earlier in 1941, the Nazis learned of the U. Hitler decided war with the United States was unavoidable, and the Pearl Harbor attack, the publication of Rainbow Five, and Roosevelt's post-Pearl Harbor address, which focused on European affairs as well as the situation with Japan, probably contributed to the declaration.